Between the s and , Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers. The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social.
Rand hedges fared well as the local currency fell to a two-month low against the dollar, while global markets were recovering a little. Landlords are battling as retail trends change, and are having to think laterally to retain tenants and increase footfall. Exports, as has so often been the case recently, is keeping most local production lines from gathering cobwebs. Move to limit abuse of incentives will reduce funding for small businesses, say industry representatives. City chairman says McCarthy needs a couple more seasons at club level before taking Bafana position. There had been concerns over the softening of global economic growth, underlined by trends in the first half of as trade and manufacturing decelerated. Current forecasts point to 2.
Boko Haram, the Nigeria-based jihadi movement affiliated with the self-proclaimed Islamic State, has been in decline for more than two years, since it began to lose territory around Lake Chad under joint military pressure from Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. After retreating from major towns in northeastern Nigeria such as Bama and Mubi, Boko Haram now controls only certain remote rural areas in that corner of the country. Consider the military situation on the ground, which has improved from the summer of , when Boko Haram was conducting a fearsome campaign of revenge against Niger, Chad and Cameroon. Data for northern Cameroon show that after two deadly winters — and —Boko Haram has been less powerful. Already this year, Boko Haram has conducted several suicide bombings in northeastern Nigeria.
Dominance hierarchies are expected to form in response to socioecological pressures and competitive regimes. We assess dominance relationships among free-ranging female Asian elephants Elephas maximu s and compare them with those of African savannah elephants Loxodonta africana , which are known to exhibit age-based dominance hierarchies. Both species are generalist herbivores, however, the Asian population occupies a more productive and climatically stable environment relative to that of the African savannah population. We expected this would lower competition relative to the African taxon, relaxing the need for hierarchy. Elephas maximus displayed less than a third the number of dominance interactions as observed in L.